Pikslo deep diving / underwater interception of the nordic sea

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Pikslo_deep_diving / underwater interception of the nordic sea

DIWO open lab, DIY Biologie, DIY Chemistry, DIY hydrophone

Deep diving open lab at BIKS.jpg

Keywords

sonification, sound pollution, underwater sound, underwater sound pollution, anthropogenic

influence on the sea life, hydrophone, sonar, field recording, electromagnetic polution

(internet cables in water), acoustic ecology, seafaring, animals, fish, jellyfish, nordic sea, DIY

biologie, DIY chemistry, anthropocene, microplastic polution, interspecies empathy, embodiment, complex systems

Collaborators ­ team:

Robertina Šebjanič (SI), Kat Austen (UK/DE), Slavko Glamočanin (SI), Gjino Šutić

(CRO), Piksel team (main organiser)

+

associated partner / mentor of the DIY bio workshop by Cristian Delgado

+

participants of the workshop


Deep diving mentors.jpg

Workshop / project:

During the 5 day work intense inter ­ disciplinary research of four main mentors and

collaborators did open the process of the exploration of the context of DIY biologie, DIY

chemistry and sound. An DIY laboratory in the context of the Piksel festival was the main eirviroment for the workshop.

We did spend time out on the field trips to

the fjords and surroundings in Bergen, to collect needed data.

Introduction to research / main topic of the research has been:

- underwater sound polution

- microplastic polution

Field trip - reaserch - collecting data

Harbour - collectiong data

17., 18., 19., 20. November 2015

Deep diving - harbour data collecting.jpg Filed trip deep diving 02.jpg


Fjords boat trip - underwater recording

21. November 2015

gps locations of the audio recordings and the audio recordings coming soon...

Fjords boat trip deep diving.jpg Deep diving field trip 03.jpg Fjords deep diving filed trip 04 .jpg Fjord hack fiedl trip 04.jpg 182.jpg

DIY hydrophone

We build a lot of various DIY hydrophone with piezo speakers, to try them out on the field trips.


DIY hydrophone 01.jpg Diy hydrophone roro 02.jpg

Audio summary and visualization - Pikslo Deep Dive visualization

4 hydrophone recordings we made in the sea around Bergen, Norway on 21.11.2015.

- First one is just outside the harbour (00:00),

- the second is a boat passing by on the same spot (00:42),

- third is in a secluded bay (01:19)

- fourth a point in the open (03:12).

Visualized by Slavko Glamočanin with OpenGL in realtime.

Thanks to http://www.ultranoise.es/ aka Enrique Tomas ] for lending us the professional hydrophone (which we compared to our DIY ones:)

Audio recordings available here: https://www.freesound.org/people/slavko321/packs/18501/

GPS locations of the audio recordings and the audio recordings coming soon...

.

Microplastic pollution - DIY bio and DIY chemistry research

Diy microplastic gjino kat 01.jpg Microplastic reaserch.jpg


Mareano programme, which records all instances of marine litter that the researchers find

http://mareano.no/en/about_mareano

http://mareano.no/en/maps/mareano_en.html

This has little information on the region around Bergen


Methods for analysing microplastics: http://marinedebris.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/publications-files/noaa_microplastics_methods_manual.pdf

Destroying organic compounds (for microplastic analysis):

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenton's_reagent

(hydrogen peroxide + Fe solution)

we are using Sodium percarbonate instead of hydrogen peroxide

Venish has 30% sodium peroxide + enzimes (protein & starch digestion - protease & amylase)

http://rbeuroinfo.com/ - Venish composition


Water lab analysis out of the harbour

Temperatire 14 deg C

767 x10

760 x10

pH 6.6


Algae collage.jpg


ALGAE MICROPLASTIC TESTING PROTOCOL

Algal Samples:

Ascophyllum nodosum - formally identified as Fucus vesiculosus, known by the common name bladder wrack or bladderwrack (bubbles)

Oarweed or Kelp (Laminaria digitata) (flat without bubbles)

Fucus serratus (second sample from outside the harbour)

Testing protocol: 1 g of each type of algae into test tubes, 4 iterations of each Stock solution of vanish - 40 g to 80 mL water Stock Iron Solution 3.75g Fe II sulphate, 4g Mexican lemon salt powder (lemon juice, citric acid, salt and sugar), 250 ml water (boiled)

To 1g of each seaweed in a small test tube add: Sample 1: 5ml Fe 5ml Percarbonate

Sample 2: 5ml Fe II aq stock 5ml Percarbonate 0.5 ml of Ajax all purpose cleaning gel

Sample 3: 5ml Fe 5ml Percarbonate 2ml Ajax

Sample 4: 5ml Fe 10 ml 3% hydrogen peroxide solution

Left standing for 10 minutes Heat to 80 degrees C then turn off heat and leave to stand

Coral Empathy Device

CoralEmpathy inside.jpg CoralEmpathy outside.jpg

Information from the DIY microplastic experimentation and conversations with researchers from Bergen's Marine Institute, alongside sound recordings from the hydrophone field trips, informed the design of a prototype Coral Empathy Device. The device obliterates the visual, employing sound, pressure, texture and smell to translate messages of anthropogenic marine intervention between the experience of coral in the Norwegian waters and the experience of humans on terra. Liquid to air, coral to human, the Coral Empathy Device prototype is an experiment in interspecies empathy.

Final Presentation

Deep diving final presentation 02.jpg Feel like a coral 01.jpg IMG 7229 3.jpg Final presentation deep diving 2.jpg


DIY BIO

associated partner / mentor of the DIY bio workshop by Cristian Delgado

DNK extraction etc... See video https://vimeo.com/146942782

Concept & context

Pikslo_deep_diving // Context & concept of the workshop / research:

by Robertina Šebjanič (SI), Kat Austen (UK/D), Slavko Glamočanin(SI), Gjino Šutić (CRO)


When we look up to sky and look into the space and wonder about what is up there, we

sometime forget, that there is a lot still also to explore on the planet we live.

We know more about the space than we know about the world’s seas and oceans,

especially about the sound perception underwater.

People are not so aware of the vibrant underwater acoustic of sounds of the deepness of

ocean, except for the crash of a wave against a land. Whales, shrimp, seals, dolphins, and a

variety of other creatures of the deep live in a watery acoustical ­ sonic environment. The

arrival of steamships and other human­made interventions into the ocean soundscape has

contributed disturbing noise to this rich soundscape.

The workshop / project encourage an inter­relationship between sound, nature, and

society, as a starting point for the rethinking of the possible developed of nicer sonic

environments for the animals living in the world's oceans and sea’s.

The underwater sound pollution is the reality of recent development and industrialization

reflecting on the sea.

Especially the upper level of the seas ­ where there is most of the living in the seas and

independent by the level of the sonic pollution in the sea. We would also try to research the

deep sea level to understand what is happening there.

World seas and oceans are presenting more than 70% of surface of Earth.

97% of it is saltwater, 2% is fresh water in the form of ice and only the remaining 1% is

drinking water, which is distributed around the planet very unevenly.

The exploration of any ecosystem requires detailed study and observation. The ocean is the

complex, challenging, and harsh environment on Earth and accessing it requires specially

designed tools and technology. It has only been within the last 50 years that technology has

advanced to the point that we can examine the ocean in a systematic, scientific, and non

invasive way. Our ability to observe the ocean environment and its resident creatures has

finally caught up with our imaginations and helping us to understand it also in the ways that

we did not imagine them before.

Already back at the renaissance 1490 Leonardo da Vinci observed how the sound of ships

travelled long distances underwater. The sound of ships in the 15th century included the

noise of rudders and rigging, oars and the handling of cargo. Seafaring, while not in its

infancy, was a “life driven” technology; the power of wind and human muscle generated the

only anthropogenic noises in the sea. Over the next 400 years, acoustic technology at sea

involved innovations such as underwater bells and whistling buoys on submerged rocks and

reefs to warn navigators and captains away from marine hazards. With the advent of steam

powered engines, the quality and level of noise began to shift dramatically. With the ability to

navigate to, and develop the far reaches of the globe, the use of dynamite and diesel driven

pile drivers began transforming the soundscape of coastal waters worldwide. Once the

mechanization of seafaring and coastal civil engineering took hold, ocean noise began

increasing exponentially” * (from the Soundscape The Journal of Acoustic Ecology​) and

it started to overtake also the sound scape environment of the animals.

More about the seas in Norway:

NOAA

https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/nordic­seas/​

Some of references and interesting readings for the context of the workshop:

from the referential journal: Soundscape The Journal of Acoustic Ecology and

NOAA’s

Marine Life

The sounds produced by marine animals are many and varied. Marine mammals, such as

blue whales and harbor porpoise, produce sounds over a wide frequency range, from less

than 10 Hz to over 100,000 Hz, depending on the species of marine mammal. Many fish,

such as the oyster toadfish and plainfin midshipman, and some marine invertebrates, such

as snapping shrimp, also produce sounds. Marine animals use sound to obtain detailed

information about their surroundings. They rely on sound to communicate, navigate, and

feed. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, use sound to locate and identify objects such as

food, obstacles, and other whales. By emitting clicks, or short pulses of sound, and listening

to the echo, dolphins can detect individual prey and navigate around objects underwater.

from the ​http://www.dosits.org/science/soundsinthesea/commonsounds/


Salt-Water Fish Extinction Seen By 2048 The apocalypse has a new date: 2048.

That's when the world's oceans will be empty of fish, predicts an international team of ecologists and economists. The cause: the disappearance of species due to overfishing, pollution, habitat loss, and climate change.

The study by Boris Worm, PhD, of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, -- with colleagues in the U.K., U.S., Sweden, and Panama -- was an effort to understand what this loss of ocean species might mean to the world.

The researchers analyzed several different kinds of data. Even to these ecology-minded scientists, the results were an unpleasant surprise. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/salt-water-fish-extinction-seen-by-2048/



Cnidaria ­ jellyfish hearing under the water

At present there is still a dearth of research and understanding about how Cnidaria—with

their ancient evolutionary history— actually perceive and adapt to their environment through

acoustic energy and vibration, and how this has enabled them to survive over the eons

despite their ‘simplicity.’

Marine mammal calls can actually increase ambient noise levels by 20­25 underwater dB in

some locations at certain times of year. Blue and fin whales produce low­frequency moans

at frequencies of 10­25 Hz with estimated source levels of up to 190 underwater dB at 1 m.

The ambient noise levels at frequencies of 17­20 Hz increase off coastal California during

the fall and winter months due to blue and fin whale calls.

from the Soundscape The Journal of Acoustic Ecology

http://wfae.proscenia.net/journal/scape_6.pdf


Animal Sound Perception and Production Modes

From the preceding it is clear that many sea animals use sound in a variety of ways. Some

animals use sound passively, others actively. Passive use of sound occurs when the animal

does not create the sound that it senses, but responds to environmental and ambient

sounds. These uses include: 1. Detection of predators. 2. Location and detection of prey. 3.

Proximity perception of co­species in school, raft or colony. 4. Navigation—either local or

global. 5. Perception of changing environmental conditions such as seismic movement, tides

and currents. 6. Detection of food sources and feeding of other animals. 7. “Acoustic

illumination” akin to daylight vision. Active use of sound occurs when the animal creates a

sound to interact with their environment or other animals in it. Active uses include: 1. Sonic

communication with co­species for breeding. 2. Sonic communication with co­species for

feeding, including notification and guidance of others to food sources. 3. Territorial and

social relations. 4. Echolocation. 5. Stunning and apprehending prey. 6. Alarm calls used to

notify other creatures of the approach of enemies. 7. Long distance navigation and mapping.

8. Use of sound as a defense against predators. 9. Use of sound when seized by a predator

(perhaps to startle the predator).

from the Soundscape The Journal of Acoustic Ecology

http://wfae.proscenia.net/journal/scape_6.pdf


Arctic Hydroacoustics by H KUTSCHALEI underwater sound are the permanent ice cover and the velocity structure in the water. ... Sounds are transmitted to great ranges in this natural arctic waveguide. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic22-3-246.pdf


Underwater Sound Propagation in the Arctic Ocean by H. W. Marsh and R. H. Mellen Some results of a four‐year experimental study of sound propagation in the Arctic are presented and interpreted. The duration, form, and intensity of waves received at distances up to 1400 km are explained using ray theory and modes, in which source characteristics, refraction, scattering at the ice surface, and bottom effects are important. http://scitation.aip.org/content/asa/journal/jasa/35/4/10.1121/1.1918531


308 million year old tropical forest in the arctic A recent study published in the journal Geology shared some surprising findings: the icy landscape of Svalbard, Norway was once home to an ancient tropical forest. A group of researchers from Cardiff University found fossilized tree stumps belonging to lycopsids, a tropical tree, during the course of field work in the area. http://inhabitat.com/scientists-discover-308-million-year-old-tropical-forest-in-the-arctic/


Video of plankton eating plastic http://grist.org/list/this-beautiful-video-of-plankton-eating-plastic-is-also-a-little-disturbing/?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=update&utm_campaign=socialflow


Killer whales make waves to hunt seals A BBC film crew has captured footage of killer whales working together to create waves to wash their vulnerable prey into the water. The predators targeted a weddell seal that was resting on a small ice floe, sweeping it off the ice to where they could attack it. Scientists who worked with the film crew said the footage revealed new insights into killer whale ecology. The team filmed the sequence for the BBC documentary Frozen Planet http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/15308790


Underwater Sound in the Arctic Ocean (reaserch from 1965) http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/718140.pdf


The underwater noise that drove scientists QUACKERS for 50 years: Researchers discover minke whale is source of mysterious duck sound http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2611606/The-underwater-noise-drove-scientists-QUACKERS-Researchers-discover-source-mysterious-duck-sound-minke-whales.html#ixzz3sVRwvTzD


You might not be able to see them, but microplastics are in the water—and our seafood: [1]